Lanthanum, with its silvery-white luster, might not be found freely in nature, but its presence is undeniable in numerous applications that influence our daily lives. This chemical element, marked by the atomic number 57 and represented by the symbol La, is a significant member of the rare earth elements, despite . . . Read more
Molybdenum is a silvery-gray metal with one of the highest melting points of any natural element. Molybdenum is a chemical element with the atomic number 42 and is represented by the chemical symbol Mo. This metal is never found in its free form on Earth, but can be found in . . . Read more
Cerium is a rare earth element that was named after the dwarf planet Ceres. It is a silvery metal that is soft, ductile and malleable. It is a chemical element and is represented by the atomic number 58 with the symbol Ce. It is not found in its free form . . . Read more
Dysprosium is a rare earth element that is silvery-white in appearance. It is a chemical element with the atomic number 66 and the chemical symbol Dy. Dysprosium is never found in its free form on Earth, but can be found in many minerals. It was one of the last naturally . . . Read more
Boric acid is a weak acid that is made up of boron, hydrogen and oxygen. It is a solid white crystal substance at room temperature and can be dissolved in water. Boric acid can be found in nature in some areas of volcanic activity as well as in seawater, plants . . . Read more
Thulium is a bright silvery metal, which slowly tarnishes in air and is reactive in water. It is extremely soft and can be cut with a knife. Thulium is an extremely rare chemical element (symbol Tm and atomic number 69) and it is never found in pure form in nature. . . . Read more
Praseodymium is a soft, silvery metal that is represented by the symbol Pr and the atomic number of 59. It is malleable and ductile and is one the rare earth elements. It is very reactive and even when artificially prepared it slowly develops a green oxide coating. It was discovered in 1841 by a Swedish chemist named Carl Gustav Mosanader in the form of an oxide. The oxide was later separated into two salts of different colours which were named praseodymium and neodymium. The chemical element was named for the colour of its primary oxide praseodymium coming from the Greek word prasinos (which means green). This article will detail the main used of praseodymium in the world today.
Samarium is a hard, silver metal that oxidizes in air to form a yellow-gray powder on the surface of the metal. It is a chemical element with the atomic number 62 and is represented by the chemical symbol Sm. Due to its reactiveness it is never found in its free form in nature, but it can be found in a number of minerals. The most important minerals as a commercial source of the element are monazite and bastnaesite (bastnäsite). It is known as a rare earth element, but it is actually the 40th most common element in the crust of the Earth (more common than tin). The largest reserves of this element are believed to be found in China, the United States, India, Brazil, Australia and Sri Lanka. About 700 metric tons is produced each year for a number of different applications.
Neodymium is a soft, silver metal with the chemical symbol Nd and the atomic number of 60. When exposed to the air neodymium tarnishes quickly. It is found naturally in chemical form in ore minerals such as monazite and bastnäsite and is one of the most common elements found within the crust of the Earth. It is generally refined into its metallic form for many applications.
Niobium (once known as columbium) is a chemical element with the atomic number 41 and represented by the chemical symbol Nb. It is a gray transition metal that does not occur in its free form in nature. However, it is the 33rd most abundant element in the crust of the Earth and it can be found in certain minerals such as pyrochlore. The largest deposits of this mineral have been found in Canada and Brazil, and the largest amount of niobium is produced by these two countries each year. There are approximately 4.4 million tonnes of niobium reserves on the planet and about 63,000 metric tons of this metal are produced each year. Let’s take a look at some of the most common applications of niobium in the world today.