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Hafnium is a silvery-gray, corrosion resistant transition metal that is chemically similar to zirconium. In fact, it is often found together in zirconium minerals. Hafnium is a chemical element and is represented by the symbol Hf and the atomic number 72. It is a relatively recent discovery and was first isolated in the 20th century. It is never found in its free form in nature, but can be found in certain minerals. The mineral zircon is the most important commercial source of hafnium and this is commonly found in the titanium ores ilmenite and rutile. Hafnium is relatively rare and it is predicted that the reserves of this metal could last less than 10 years if the demand for hafnium increases. Let’s take a look at the current uses of this transition metal.
Tellurium is a brittle silvery-white metal that has a similar appearance to tin. It is a chemical element represented by the atomic number 52 and the chemical symbol Te. It can be found in free form in nature, but is also found together with gold and in other minerals. Most tellurium is produced as a by-product of copper and lead mining. The largest producers of this metal are the United States, Peru, Japan and Canada. It is a rare element and is considered to be one of the rarest stable elements on Earth. This means that worldwide production of tellurium is quite low. Despite this fact, there are a number of important uses of tellurium.
Antimony is a gray metalloid that is usually found naturally as part of the mineral stibnite, although the free metal can also be found in nature. Compounds that contain antimony have been known since ancient times and the metal was also known in these times but was commonly mistaken for lead. Antimony is a chemical element represented by the symbol Sb and the atomic number 51. Antimony is only modestly abundant in the crust of the Earth, but can be found in over 100 minerals. China is believed to have the largest reserves of this element and is also the largest producer at 120,000 metric tons or 89% of the world supply. Despite being relatively scarce, this element has many important applications in the modern world.
Gadolinium is rare silvery-white metal with an atomic number of 64 and the chemical symbol Gd. It was first detected in 1880. It was named Gadolinium after gadolinite, one of the minerals in which it is found. It is only found in its salt form in nature, but can be refined into metals and chelates. Gadolinium is primarily used in the medical and metal industries for specialised purposes. Gadolinium has no large scale uses, but this article will detail how gadolinium is used in the world today.
Thorium is as chemical element which occurs naturally. It is radioactive in nature and has the atomic number of 90 and the chemical symbol Th. It was discovered in 1828 and named after Thor the Norse god of thunder. When it decaying it releases radon-22 gas as well as radium and actinium. Thorium is radioactive, but has a very slow rate of decay and the radiation it emits is not absorbed by the body, which means that it can safely be used for some important applications.
Yttrium is a transition metal with the atomic number of 39 and the chemical symbol Y. It is a rare earth element and is never found in nature as a free element. Yttrium has only one stable, naturally occurring isotope 2Y and 19 unstable isotopes. Yttrium was discovered in 1787 by Carl Axel Arrhenius and first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler. Yttrium has no known biological function, but it has some important commercial applications. Let’s find out how yttrium is used in the world today.
Zirconium is a white-gray transition metal with an atomic number of 40. Its chemical symbol is Zr and it is commonly found with the mineral zircon. It is very similar in appearance to titanium and it has a strong resistance to corrosion. There are 5 isotopes of Zirconium and 3 of these are stable. Zirconium forms a number of organometallic and inorganic compounds, the most commonly known being zirconium dioxide and zirconium dichloride. Read this article to learn about the uses of zirconium in the world today.
Indium is a chemical element that is extremely rare, soft and malleable. It has an atomic number of 49 and the chemical symbol of Ir. This element was discovered in 1863 and was named for the indigo streak in its spectrum. Indium is mostly obtained from zinc ores, but some Indium is obtained from naturally occurring grains of metal. Indium is chemically similar to both gallium and thallium. It is often used in an alloy with other metals such as tin, aluminium and gold. So how is Indium used in the modern world today? Read on to find out.
Cadmium is a soft, bluish-white metal with an atomic number of 48 and the chemical symbol Cd. It is part of group 12 on the periodic table and is one of the three, along with zinc and mercury, stable metals in this section. It has a low melting point compared to the transition metals and is mainly found as part of zinc ores. It was discovered in 1817 by two German scientists, Stromeyer and Hermann. In certain forms this element is toxic causing death at high levels. Due to this fact, the uses of cadmium are gradually decreasing as new and safer materials are found. This article will detail how cadmium is used in the world today.
Iridium is a chemical element that is part of the platinum metal group. It has an atomic number of 77 and is represented by the chemical symbol Ir. It is a very hard, brittle metal and it is the most corrosive resistant metal on Earth. Even at high temperatures it shows little to no corrosion. Iridium was discovered in 1803 and was named after the Greek goddess Iris due to the many colors of its salts. Iridium is one of the rarest elements in the crust of the Earth with only three metric tons produced per year. Let’s take a look at some of the most common applications of Iridium in the world today.