The Ottoman Empire, also commonly known as the Turkish Empire, was formed in 1299. At the height of its dominancy the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of southeast Europe as well as parts of Northern Africa and Asia. It covered an area of approximately 5,200,000 km2 (2,007,731 sq mi). Due to its position and size it dominated the interactions between the eastern and western worlds for over 6 centuries. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by a royal family with a formal government that ruled over the affairs of the many states making up the empire. The Ottoman Empire formally ceased to exist in 1942, but had been deteriorating for many years prior to this. So, what cause the fall of the Ottoman Empire? Read this article to find out.
What caused the collapse of Ottoman Empire?
As with most large empires the collapse of the Ottoman Empire cannot be blamed on one act or reason. The Empire started to slowly crumble as its vast size and population became difficult to control under one government. Below are listed the biggest contributors to collapse of the empire.
At the time when the Ottoman Empire existed it covered a vast area of southeast Europe, northern Africa and western Asia. It was a large empire occupying much land. Many of the other European powers wanted to expand their own empires. This led to these countries pushing the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire, inciting small rebellions of the states within the Empire and providing them with monetary and military resources. Due to its vast size the Ottoman Empire was unable to quell these rebellions as they rose, thus many grew and caused greater opposition. Some even lead to wars such as The Crimean War and the Balkan Wars. This instability played a part in the collapse of the empire
The Europeans powers also stopped trading with the Ottoman Empire and found their goods elsewhere such as the American market and the cheaper markets of India and the Far East. This left the Ottoman Empire with a lack of income and a loss of trade making economic conditions within the empire difficult. The Ottoman Empire found it difficult to finance war efforts and maintain an empire with high unemployment.
Rising tensions between the different ethnic groups within the Empire also made it difficult for the Ottoman Empire to run smoothly. Many of the states pushed towards independence and strong nationalism ideals arose among the people. Many of the ethnic groups wanted to preserve their own heritage and culture and wanted a country of their own. This lead to a decrease in cooperation amongst the many states of the empire, making it difficult for the Sultan and his government to govern such a vast empire.
The Final collapse of the Ottoman Empire occurred with the Turkish War of Independence. During this time the capital of Constantinople and the city ?zmir were captured and this led to the end of the war followed by the signing of a treaty. The treaty dissolved the failing Ottoman Empire and in its place rose many new countries including modern day Turkey, Serbia, Eygpt, Iraq, Palestine and Kuwait.