Carpet is a type of floor covering that is used in many homes and office spaces. It is used to insulate against noise and heat lost and can be placed on walls and ceilings as well as floors. It comes in a variety of thicknesses, colors and patterns and is an important part of decor. Carpet is made from a number of different materials such as wool, polypropylene, nylon or polyester. It is thought that carpet has been around since at least the 3rd or 2nd millennium BC. So how is carpet made? Read on to find out.
How is Carpet Made?
Most carpets that are used in homes, offices, schools and other businesses are made from synthetic materials. They are weaved in large textile factories allowing manufacturers to mass produce thousands of meters of carpet per day. The first step in making synthetic carpet is to make the carpet yarn which is usually nylon or polyester. A large opening and blending machine turns the bales of nylon or polyester fibers into a mix. This mix is then untangled and the fibers are lined up into long rows. These are then twisted together into wider bands. The bands are then spun into reels and sent to another machine. The drawing frame draws out five individual threads from the bands to make one loose thread to be spun onto spools. Two spools are twisted together to make a strong and thick thread which is then twisted together with another thread to make a two ply yarn. The two ply yarn is then passed through a heat machine to make sure that the yarn will not untwist. This is then spun back onto a spool as cured yarn.
The cured yarn is what is used to create carpet. They are placed on frames called tufting frames. Each spool is fed into it own tube which leads to the tufting machine. Each spool is attached to a tufting needle which stitches the yarn into a backing material, usually canvas. Once the backing canvas has been completely stitched it is placed into rollers and taken to be dyed. For carpets with more than one colour a Chromo jet is used. This machine works very similarly to a colour printer and prints the colour on to the carpet. If the carpet is to be a solid colour it is soaked for four hours in a vat of hot dye and water.
Once the carpets are dyed and dried a polypropylene backing is glued over the original canvas backing to lock the carpet threads in place. The carpet is the pressed and passed through an oven to ensure adhesion of the backing layer. The carpet has a final inspection and any long tufts are cut and any missing tufts applied by hand. Once the carpet is complete it is cut into rolls of 100 feet.