The body has many muscles and it is estimated that there are about 640 skeletal muscles in every human body (the exact number is debated by experts)! There are three different types of muscles including skeletal, cardiac and smooth (involuntary muscles). Muscles are basically fibrous body tissues that are capable . . . Read more
Snakes are a long, slender reptiles best known for not having legs. They are commonly seen as being dangerous animals because some species can bite humans and inject venom that is powerful enough to kill. However, the vast majority of snakes are nonvenomous or have only enough venom to kill . . . Read more
A Christmas stocking is a sock-shaped bag that is hung in the house on Christmas Eve in the hope that Santa will fill it with presents during the night. In general these stockings are quite small and are filled with smaller gifts, sometimes called stocking stuffers or fillers. The origin . . . Read more
The hypothalamus is a small part of the brain that is located just above the brain stem. In the human brain it is approximately the size of an almond and can be found between the right and left thalamus. The hypothalamus is an important part of the brain as it . . . Read more
Crabs are crustaceans most commonly associated with the oceans of the world. However, there are many species that can be found in fresh water and even on the land! Most crabs have a hard shell (exoskeleton) and a single pair of claws. There are thousands of species of crabs and . . . Read more
The testicles are an important part of male physiology that function as part of the reproductive system and the endocrine system. They are located in the groin region of the male body and there is usually two of similar size, but some genetic issues or injuries can lead to a reduction in number. Testicles are contained within a sack called the scrotum which is an extension of the abdomen. Testicles consist of a tough outer membrane shell which cases and protects coiled tubes which are lined with germ cells. It is from these cells that sperm are produced. A tube known as the vas defenrens is the conduit for the sperm to travel from the testicles to the penis. As with all organs in the body the testicles have specific functions. This article will outline the specific functions of the testicles.
There are more than 32,000 species of fish on the planet, which makes them the most diverse group of vertebrates. Depending on the species, fish live in freshwater or saltwater environments and breathe by extracting oxygen from the water via gills (although some species can breathe air directly). Fish are found throughout the world’s oceans, rivers and lakes. Fish vary greatly in shapes and sizes, with the largest fish being the massive whale shark at approximately 16 m (52 ft) in length. The average length of a fish is about 15-30 cm (6-12 in), but many species are far smaller. Let’s find out which of the 32,000 species of fish is the smallest in the world.
Cockroaches are insects that are best known as a major household pest, capable of carrying disease. However, there are about 4,500 species of cockroaches and only 30 are known as human pests! Cockroaches have flat round bodies, small heads and long antennas. Most species eat a variety of organic matter, and this is why some species are associated with kitchen/food preparation areas. The average size of a cockroach is much larger than many other types of insects, but most species are no larger than an average human thumbnail. Let’s find out which species of cockroach is the largest in the world.
The spleen is an internal organ that is located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen just below the left lung. It lies between the 9th and the 11th rib. In humans it appears brownish in color and is approximately 11 centimeters (4.3 in) in length. A spleen can weigh up to 200 grams (7.1 oz). The spleen is part of the lymphatic system and is supplied with blood by the short gastric arteries and the splenic artery. Read on to learn about the functions of the spleen.
Typhoid fever, usually simply known as typhoid, is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It is passed between people by food or water contaminated by feces (poop) of someone who is infected with the disease. Typhoid fever is a serious condition and causes a number of symptoms if left untreated. Initially it causes fever, fatigue and cough, with occasional bloody noses and/or abdominal pain. The symptoms of this condition worsen to include delirium, rash and heavier cough, along with possible diarrhea or constipation and swelling of the liver and spleen. If diarrhea is present it can lead to life threatening dehydration. If it remains untreated the third week of the condition can include intestinal bleeding or perforation, inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) or heart, and further delirium. If left untreated it can lead to death and of the 16-33 million cases each year about 215,000 are fatal. It is estimated that death occurs in 10-30% of untreated cases. Let’s find out how typhoid fever is treated.